标签: 正确 洗手 方法 | 发表时间:2011-09-10 14:02 | 作者:pieccon VINCENT

译者 pieccon

Hand washing is an easy way to prevent infection. Understand when to wash your hands, how to properly use hand sanitizer and how to get your children into the habit.


Frequent hand washing is one of the best ways to avoid getting sick and spreading illness. Hand washing requires only soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer — a cleanser that doesn't require water. Find out when and how to wash your hands properly.


When to wash your hands


As you touch people, surfaces and objects throughout the day, you accumulate germs on your hands. In turn, you can infect yourself with these germs by touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Although it's impossible to keep your hands germ-free, washing your hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes.


Always wash your hands before:


Preparing food

          ■ 准备食物


          ■ 吃东西

Treating wounds or giving medicine

          ■ 医治伤患或给予药物

Touching a sick or injured person

          ■ 接触病人或伤者

Inserting or removing contact lenses

          ■ 佩戴或脱下隐形眼镜

Always wash your hands after:


Preparing food, especially raw meat or poultry

          ■ 准备食物,特别是生肉或家禽

Using the toilet

          ■ 如厕

Changing a diaper

          ■ 换尿布

Touching an animal or animal toys, leashes or waste

          ■ 接触动物或动物的玩具、皮带或排泄物

Blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing into your hands

          ■ 擤鼻涕,咳嗽或打喷嚏到手里

Treating wounds

          ■ 医治伤患

Touching a sick or injured person

          ■ 接触病人或伤者

Handling garbage or something that could be contaminated, such as a cleaning cloth or soiled shoes

          ■ 拿过垃圾或者一些污染物,如一块抹布或弄脏了的鞋

Of course, it's also important to wash your hands whenever they look dirty.


How to wash your hands


It's generally best to wash your hands with soap and water. Follow these simple steps:


Wet your hands with running water.

          ■ 用自来水将手弄湿。

Apply liquid, bar or powder soap.

          ■ 抹上液态、块状或粉末状的肥皂。

Lather well.

          ■ 要均匀地抹上(不留一处空白)。

Rub your hands vigorously for at least 20 seconds. Remember to scrub all surfaces, including the backs of your hands, wrists, between your fingers and under your fingernails.

          ■ 用力摩擦双手至少20秒。记得要擦洗到所有表面,包括手背、手腕、手指间和你的指甲下面。

Rinse well.

          ■ 彻底冲洗掉手上的皂液。

Dry your hands with a clean or disposable towel or air dryer.

          ■ 用一块干净的或一次性的毛巾,又或者是风干机弄干你的双手。

If possible, use your towel to turn off the faucet.

          ■ 如果可以,用你的毛巾去关水龙头。

Keep in mind that antibacterial soap is no more effective at killing germs than is regular soap. Using antibacterial soap may even lead to the development of bacteria that are resistant to the product's antimicrobial agents — making it harder to kill these germs in the future.


How to use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer


Alcohol-based hand sanitizers — which don't require water — are an excellent alternative to soap and water. If you choose to use a commercially prepared hand sanitizer, make sure the product contains at least 60 percent alcohol. Then follow these simple steps:


Apply enough of the product to the palm of your hand to wet your hands completely.

          ■ 在你的掌心抹上足够的醇基洗手液,完全湿透你的双手。

Rub your hands together, covering all surfaces, for up to 25 seconds or until they're dry.

          ■ 双手摩擦,覆盖到每一个表面,持续25秒或直到双手干了。

If your hands are visibly dirty, however, wash with soap and water. Antimicrobial wipes or towelettes are another option, although they're not as effective as alcohol-based sanitizers.


Kids need clean hands, too


Help your children stay healthy by encouraging them to wash their hands properly and frequently. Wash your hands with your children to show them how it's done. To prevent rushing, suggest washing their hands for as long as it takes to sing the "Happy Birthday" song twice. You might place hand-washing reminders at children's eye level, such as a chart by the bathroom sink for children to mark every time they wash their hands. If your children can't reach the sink on their own, keep a stepstool handy.


Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are OK for children and adolescents, too, especially when soap and water isn't available. Make sure the sanitizer completely dries before your child touches anything. Store the container safely away after use.


Hand washing is especially important for children in child care settings. Young children cared for in groups outside the home are at greater risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, which can easily spread to family members and other contacts. Be sure your child care provider promotes frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Ask whether the children are required to wash their hands several times a day — not just before meals. Note, too, whether diapering areas are cleaned after each use and whether eating and diapering areas are well separated.


A simple way to stay healthy


Hand washing doesn't take much time or effort, but it offers great rewards in terms of preventing illness. Adopting this simple habit can play a major role in protecting your health.


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