愤怒的情绪也需要管理

标签: 愤怒 情绪 管理 | 发表时间:2011-10-21 07:59 | 作者:ediver 景泰
出处:http://www.yeeyan.org

译者 ediver

Anger is a powerful emotion that comes from fear, frustration or strong disappointment. It is a natural human emotion, experienced by all of us. Many people think of anger as only a "bad" or "negative" emotion, which can prevent themselves or others from using it in a healthy and helpful way.

愤怒是一种强烈的情绪,源自于恐惧、受挫或巨大的失落感。这是一种很自然的人类情感,我们每个人都会生气。很多人把愤怒看作是“不好的”或者“负面的”情绪,这就使得他们或其他人无法健康并有效地利用愤怒。

Everybody, young and old, male and female, feels angry at some time or another. Many people think that men, especially young men, get angry more often than women. This is a myth. This belief may have come about because men and women tend to express their anger in different ways.

无论男女老幼,每个人都有生气的时候。很多人以为男人,特别是年轻男子,比女人更容易发火。这是一种误解,可能是因为男女表达愤怒的方式不同而造成的。

Men and boys are given messages that they should be 'tough' and that it is unmanly to express feelings such as fear, hurt, rejection and other 'painful' emotions.

· 男人从小接受的信息是,他们必须“强硬”。如果他们表现出害怕、受伤、不被接纳或其它“痛苦”的情绪,他们就不够男人。

Women and girls are generally taught that getting angry is 'unladylike' or unfeminine. What names have you heard females called if they show anger?  "out of control", "bitch.."

· 女人从小受到的教育则通常是:发火不够”淑女“或不够女性。你听说过女性发火时是如何被人指摘的吗?”失控“、”母狗……“

This can mean that women are more likely to bottle up their anger or ignore it, while men lose their temper and let people know they feel angry.

这意味着女性通常会克制或忽视自己的愤怒,而男性则会大发雷霆,让别人知道他们很生气。

Anger can lead to dangerous situations unless you learn to recognise and manage it.

除非你学会认知并控制愤怒,不然这种情绪有可能导致危险情况的发生。

Recognising anger in yourself and others

觉知愤怒的情绪

When you get angry, your body releases a whole load of chemicals into your brain and they change the way your body is working. It stimulates the 'fight or flight' response so that your heart beats faster to push blood and the oxygen it carries, round to every part of your body, giving muscles and organs a boost to perform at their best.

当你生气的时候,你的身体会释放出大量的化学物质到你的大脑,从而改变你的身体机能。它会激发你作出“战斗或逃跑”的反应,你的心跳会因此而加速,身体每个部位血液和氧气的供给会增加,你的肌肉和内脏的表现也会因为受到刺激而达到最佳。

Anger makes the heart pump faster; breathing gets faster and irregular (panting).

· 愤怒会使你心跳加速,呼吸也会加快并且变得不规则(喘息)。

Your temperature rises and your body shakes or trembles.

· 你的体温会升高,身体会发抖或哆嗦。

You may feel like you want to hit out at something or someone, hurt yourself or others, run away as fast as you can, burst into tears or scream and shout.

· 你可能会想要打什么东西或者什么人、伤害自己或者其他人、快速地跑开、大哭一场或者大嚷大叫。

People who are angry look very tense with clenched fists and tight muscles.

· 生气的人看上去很紧张,拳头紧攥,肌肉紧绷。

Their eyes look wild or tearful, their voices sound loud and uncontrolled, or extremely quiet and 'dangerous'.

· 生气的人可能眼神看上去很狂野,也可能满眼泪水。他们的声音可能很大很失控,也可能很轻很“危险”。

Their face may be red and look swollen, or very white and tight looking with lips drawn back (a sort of human version of a dog snarling!).

· 他们的脸可能涨得通红,好象肿了一样,也可能脸色苍白,面部紧敛,嘴唇紧收(有点儿象狗咆哮时的模样!)

If most of these signs are there then this could be a dangerous situation unless it is handled well by you and any other person involved.

如果出现上述这些迹象,情况可能很危险,除非你和其他在场的人能够妥善处理。

angry feelings

How anger can be helpful

愤怒也有益处

In spite of the way anger is often viewed, it can be a helpful emotion in our lives. Anger can help you by:

尽管人们对于发火的看法通常比较负面,不过愤怒也可以成为我们生活中有益的情绪。愤怒可以:

driving you to reach your goals, handle emergencies and solve problems

· 激励你实现目标,处理紧急情况,解决问题

helping you express stress and tension

· 帮助你表达压力和紧张

communicating to others what you are feeling

· 把你的感受告诉别人

motivating change towards social justice.

· 促进社会向公平转变

In more primitive times anger was used as a survival tool. In more modern times, anger is also useful to:

在人类还处于更原始的时期,愤怒曾经是一种生存工具,而在现代社会,愤怒则可以:

notice you have been treated unfairly or been emotionally attacked by others

· 告诉别人你受到了不公平的待遇或者情感上受到了伤害

help you protect your emotional well-being

· 帮助你保护自己的心绪健康

allow you to stand up for yourself and your rights

· 让你为了自己和自己的权利挺身而出

show disapproval when someone breaks social rules or 'norms'. Anger communicates a message that some behaviour is not OK, eg. you might get angry at Joe when he 'beats up his girlfriend' because you see violence as very harmful, illegal and not OK

· 让你在别人打破社会规则或“常规”时表达不满。愤怒可以传达这样一种信息,就是有些行为让人无法接受。例如,当乔“动手打他的女朋友”时,你可能会愤怒,因为你认为暴力是一种有害、非法、不可接受的行为。

lead to changes in the way our society runs. When a group of people get angry over the same things, they will often join together to change the situation, eg. marches against racism or protests against war.

· 导致社会运行方式的转变。当一群人对于同样的事情都感到愤怒时,他们经常会携起手来改变现状,比如举行反种族主义的游行或者反战示威。

Note: Your anger can be useful, but only if you express it in a helpful way. It is important that you don't hurt yourself or other people or damage property.

注意:只有当你以积极的方式表达愤怒时,你的愤怒才可能产生正面的作用。千万不要伤害自己或他人,也不要损坏财物。

Dealing with your anger

对治你的愤怒

Your instinctive reaction to anger is to go into Attack, Hurt, Destroy, Defend mode!

当你生气时,本能的反应是进入攻击、伤害、毁坏、自卫的模式!

This can lead to your hurting someone, or hurting yourself if the other person isn’t around to hurt!

· 你可能会去伤害别人,或者如果你想伤害的人不在跟前,你就伤害你自己!

It can lead to damage to property and making really stupid choices that may lead to lasting problems in the future.

· 你也可能会损坏财物,作出种种愚蠢的选择,给将来带来没完没了的麻烦。

Stop and ask yourself why you are really angry.

停下来问问自己,你到底为什么生气。

Is it because you fear something?

· 是因为你有所恐惧吗?

Do you feel you have been treated unfairly?

· 是因为你觉得自己受到了不公平的待遇吗?

Did someone say or do something that embarrassed you?

· 是因为有人说了或者做了什么让你难堪的事情吗?

Did something hurt your feelings?

· 是因为发生了什么伤害你的感情的事情吗?

Did you feel a lack of respect for you and your needs?

· 是因为你觉得自己和自己的需要没有受到别人的尊重吗?

Does it remind you of another experience where you were hurt?

· 是因为你想起了以前受伤的经历吗?

Expressing anger in hurtful ways

用伤人的方式表达愤怒

When people are not aware of how they are feeling, they can sometimes let anger cause an unhealthy outburst. Anger then becomes negative, destructive and can harm you or other important people and things in your life.

当人们不清楚自己的感受时,有时会以不健康的方式发火。愤怒于是变成负面的、具有破坏力的行为,并可能对你或其他在你生命中具有重要地位的人事造成伤害。

If you frequently lose your temper, you may find it can:

如果你经常发火,你会发现:

be hard to keep friends, partners, family or employment

· 你很难维持友谊、两性关系、家庭或工作

make both yourself and other people miserable

· 你会让自己和他人都很难受

hurt yourself or others (often loved ones)

· 你会伤害自己或他人(经常是你所爱的人)

lead to loneliness and unhappiness

· 你会感觉孤独、不开心

lead to violence - this is harmful to others, illegal, you may be charged with assault, or other crimes.

· 你可能会有暴力倾向——这本身会对他人造成伤害,是非法的行为,你可能会因侵犯人身罪或其它罪行受到起诉

Anger can take over your life!

愤怒可以把你的生活搅得天翻地覆!

If you feel low or have little control in your life, you can sometimes use anger to manipulate or make others afraid of you. This can give you a sense of strength, power and control over the people around you. Using anger this way can hurt other people and yourself. It makes it difficult to keep friends or other relationships and can lead to feelings of guilt or shame. These feelings can lead to low self-esteem, and increased anger and loneliness. It becomes a vicious cycle! It is never OK to use anger to hurt people in any way!

如果你感觉情绪低落或者难以把握自己的生活,有时你会借由发火来扭曲别人对你的观感,让别人害怕你。这可能会让你觉得自己很强大,有能力操控身边的其他人。这样使用愤怒会伤害你自己和其他人,使你很难交到朋友或维持其它关系,甚至可能导致负罪感和耻辱感。这些情绪又会使你丧失自尊,并让你更加愤怒和孤独,从而进入恶性循环!无论通过什么方式,利用愤怒来伤害他人都是不对的!

On the other hand, when people ignore their anger, it has nowhere else to go, and can often turn upon its owner.

另一方面,如果人们忽视自己的怒气,它将无以宣泄,甚至可能导致自己跟自己过不去。

When you bottle up your anger, you may:

如果你一味克制自己的愤怒,你可能会:

find this method only works for a short period of time

· 发现这个办法只在短时期内有效

have depression, low self-esteem or anxiety

· 患上抑郁症、丧失自尊或感觉焦躁

use drugs and alcohol to "cover it up"

· 使用毒品或酒精来“掩盖它”

feel ugly, horrible and hate yourself

· 感觉难受、痛苦并怨恨自己

hurt or punish yourself

· 伤害或惩罚自己

explode - often over little things that wouldn't normally worry you

· 爆发——而且经常是为些无关紧要的芝麻小事

aim it at people who had nothing to do with the original cause of the anger

· 向那些跟你的愤怒根源完全不相干的人发泄

let anger take over your life!

· 让愤怒控制你的生活!

Bottling it up means anger continues to lurk like an emotional monster, waiting for opportunities to hurt you or someone else.

克制意味着你的怒火依然象个感情的魔鬼一样潜伏着,随时等待着机会去伤害你或他人。

Starting to take control

开始自己做主

Strong anger is not related to sensible thinking or working things out, which is why you need to learn how to deal with anger in a positive way.

强烈的怒火使人无法正常思考,找不出解决办法,因此你必须学习用积极的方式应对愤怒。

Anger produces a lot of power and energy. To be able to manage it you may need to work out ways of reducing it until it is controllable and you are able to use it to make things change.  

· 愤怒会产生很多的能量。要想控制愤怒,你可能先要找到办法把怒气降低到可以控制的程度,然后再利用它来促成变化。

You could learn to channel that energy into useful physical actions like:

· 你可以学习把这种能量用于有益的作为,例如:

getting away from the person you are angry with

  · 离开让你生气的人

running

  · 跑步

cleaning your room

  · 整理房间

scrubbing the floor

  · 擦洗地板

mowing the lawn

  · 修剪草坪

screaming as loud as you can into a pillow or outside in a place where you can be alone

  · 对着枕头或者到外面无人的空处大喊

writing all your angry thoughts down on a piece of paper then tearing it up into satisfyingly small pieces

  · 把所有让你生气的想法都在一张纸上,然后尽情地把它撕成碎片

counting down from ten to one (in your mind if you are not alone) starting with a screaming 'ten' and bringing down the volume to a whispering 'one'.

  · 从十到一(如果周围有人就在脑子里数),数“十”的时候大声叫,然后逐渐降低音量,数到“一”时变成耳语

exercise - do push ups and sit ups, leg bicycling lying on your back, practise throwing or pitching a ball or hitting a ball with a racket or bat into a blanket hung on the clothesline (not into a wall as your aim might be off and you could end up breaking something).

  · 锻炼——做俯卧撑或仰卧起坐,躺着用腿做蹬自行车的练习,对着挂在晾衣绳上的毯子练习投球或者用拍子击球(不要对着墙,因为你可能因为没瞄准而打碎东西)

It is not a good idea to drive, ride a bike or operate machinery when your anger is out of control.

当你怒不可遏时,最好不要开车、骑车或操作机器。

Getting help to sort things out

寻求帮助

If you are angry because of harassment/bullying or discrimination, there are laws and policies at work, school, college or university to deal with this. Make an appointment with a counsellor or equal rights representative and find out the steps you can take.

如果你是因为受人骚扰、被人欺侮或歧视而愤怒,那么无论是在工作单位还是在小学、中学、大学,都有相关的法规和政策。去跟辅导员或平等权利代表谈一谈,看看你都能做些什么。

If you're angry because you are the victim of a violent crime, ring your local police station or legal advice service to gain further information.

如果你愤怒是因为你是暴力犯罪的受害者,你可以给本地的警察局或法律顾问服务打电话,了解进一步的信息。

If anger has become a problem in your life, you may want to visit a counsellor. They can help you explore personal issues that help you to stay angry most of the time. Sometimes life experiences can hold you back from moving on with your life. Many people get help when they feel the things they're trying on their own aren't working.

如果愤怒已经成为你生活中的一个问题,你也许应该去看心理顾问。他们可以帮你找出经常让你生气的个人因素。有时是过去的生活经历使得你无法重新开始。很多人在独立尝试失败后,都会寻求帮助。

Coping with the anger of other people

应对他人的怒气

If you can see that someone is getting angry and out of control:

如果你发现有人正在发火并且已经失控:

your safety is most important, so step back and stay quiet.

· 你的安全是第一位的,所以保持距离,保持安静。

speak quietly and calmly if the angry person is asking questions.

· 如果发火的人问问题,轻柔、镇静地回答他。

if the situation looks like becoming violent then go and get help from a trusted adult.

· 如果情况可能走向暴力,去找你信得过的成人来帮助。

If someone in your home is often angry that is not your fault.

如果你家里经常有人发火,那不是你的错。

No one can make someone else angry. Everyone needs to control their own anger and not allow it to take over their minds and bodies.

· 没人能让别人发火。每个人都应该控制自己的怒气,不让怒火占据他们的身心。

If you are living in what is sometimes a violent home then you need to talk with a trusted adult.

· 如果你生活在一个充满暴力的家庭,你应该跟一位你信得过的成人谈一谈。

It is not 'dobbing' on someone if you are in an unsafe situation. You and the person who is unable to control his or her anger need some help.

· 如果你的处境不安全,这并不构成对他人的“出卖”。你和那个无法控制怒气的人都需要帮助。

Work out what you will need to do to keep yourself safe.

  · 想想你能做些什么来保证自己的安全。

Have an emergency fund stashed to get yourself out of there and round to your trusted friends.

  · 在隐蔽处准备一些应急钱,以便你能离开那里,到信任的朋友家里去。

Have a small bag filled with basic essentials ready to go in case you have get out in a hurry.

  · 准备一个小包,里面放上必需品,这样你就能随时离开。

Don't lose your temper or react, just avoid eye contact, stay calm and quiet and walk away as soon as you safely can.

  · 不要发火,也不要作出反应,避免视线接触,保持清醒和冷静,一旦能够安全地离开就赶紧走开。

Call the police if you fear for the safety of yourself and others who are there.

  · 如果你为自己和其他在场的人的安全担心,就给警察打电话。

Skills to learn and practise

应该学习并锻炼的技巧

Self awareness

· 自我觉察

Get to know yourself so that you can recognise when you are starting to feel angry.

  · 了解自己,这样当你开始生气的时候,你就能觉察出来。

Work out what it is that is making you feel angry and then think of how you can deal with it without losing your temper.

  · 找出让你生气的原因,然后想想有什么办法可以让你不发脾气就能解决问题。

Communication

· 沟通

Being able to communicate calls for listening and speaking skills.

良好的沟通能力需要同时具备倾听和表达的技巧。

Practise being an active listener. Active listening involves:

  · 练习做一个积极的倾听者。积极的倾听包括:

giving the speaker eye contact

    · 跟说话者保持视线接触

making 'listening noises' eg "uhuh" and "yes I see"

    · 发出一些“倾听的声音”,比如“嗯”,“我知道了”,等等

showing you understand by repeating what they have said using your own words eg. "Do you mean…?"

    · 用你自己的话重复对方所说的,以表示你已经明白,比如:“你的意思是……吗?”

Practise thinking logically about what you want to say.

  · 练习有逻辑地组织你要说的话。

Speak quietly without getting upset.

  · 轻声讲话,并且不需要感觉沮丧。

Assertiveness

· 有主见

Being assertive is about standing up for yourself without getting upset or losing your temper.

有主见的意思是,据理力争而不感觉沮丧或恼火。

It is about listening, then saying things like, "I hear what you are saying but have you thought about…"

  · 有主见首先要倾听,然后你可以说:“我听懂了你的意思,但是你有没有想过……”

It is about being able to agree that you are not going to agree, but that it's okay for each of you to have your own opinions.

  · 有主见是接受这样一个事实——你可以有不同的意见。每个人都可以有自己的看法,这没关系。

It is about toleration and compromise.

  · 有主见是宽容和妥协。

It is about knowing how to stand your ground without being threatening to anyone.

  · 有主见是坚持自己的立场但并不威胁任何人。

Being assertive is a very important skill that everyone should learn.

有主见是一项每个人都应该学习的重要技巧。

Conflict resolution

· 解决争议

Anger is a strong emotion. Strong emotions can get in the way of clear thinking and commonsense. Conflict resolution skills are helpful when dealing with strong emotions

愤怒是一种强烈的情绪。强烈的情绪会影响一个人清晰思维的能力以及常识性的判断能力。在应对强烈的情绪时,解决争议的技巧会很有帮助。

Conflict resolution is about:

解决争议包括:

working through the problem

  · 分析问题

listening to and respecting each other's opinions

  · 倾听并尊重每个人的意见

finding a solution that is win-win. That is when there is no winner and no loser, but each person has to be prepared to give up something to get something that they want.

  · 寻找双赢的解决方案,也就是说,没有赢家也没有输家,每个人为了得到想要的结果,都必须准备放弃一些东西。

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来源Understand Anger and Become Free of It!. 关于幸福—心理&健康. It’s important to me; I want to hear about it." An unconscious emotion it may be, an inactive one, it is not!.

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原文地址: 怎样学会控制愤怒的情绪. 管理孩子愤怒的情绪,是父母最关心的问题. 生活中,如果我们自己不能有效地管理愤怒,那么对家庭生活将会造成很大的影响. 然而管理愤怒也是孩子最难学习的一项社交技能. 例如:如果孩子不能使用正确的社交技巧来化解冲突,那么冲突就可能升级为战争. 另外,如果孩子识别社交信号的能力提高了,那么他在人际关系的互动过程中就会避免愤怒.

健康的愤怒管理方式是什么?作为父母,我们该如何帮助孩子管理愤怒?

- - 知乎每日精选
为什么要讨论“愤怒”这个主题呢. 这源于之前我和哥哥的一次“吵架”,当时,他握紧拳头对我大喊:“我真的很生气. ”这是他少有的能如此清晰地表达自己的情绪,我觉得这真的很好. 一直以来很多父母都有一个情绪认知误区,总希望孩子是开开心心的,只要孩子表现出一点点不开心,就动用一切手段试图去改变. 其实, 打造高情商孩子的关键,恰恰是在他们生气愤怒脾气不好的时候.

帮助孩子学习情绪管理?只需这4个步骤!

- - 改变从这里开始 - 壹心理
文:陈忻|本文摘录自《养育的选择》. 1.解决问题要先解决情绪. 父母要观察孩子的情绪,而不只是去纠正行为. 很多父母只看到行为,觉得大喊大叫或者摔东西等行为不好,必须要纠正,而没有看到这些行为背后的情绪,效果往往不好,这是一个恶性循环. 我经常说,解决问题要先解决情绪. 如果父母的认识不对,他们和孩子的互动就会偏离方向,产生一些不必要的问题.

2011:愤怒之年?

- coofucoo - FT中文网_英国《金融时报》(Financial Times)
存不存在“全球心态”这样一种东西. 我想不出还有什么其它时期,在全球范围内有如此众多的国家被某种形式的街头抗议或民众起义所困扰. 年初的“阿拉伯之春(Arab spring)”为全年定下了基调:在突尼斯和埃及政权垮台后,如今,利比亚的穆阿迈尔•卡扎菲(Muammer Gaddafi)被赶下了台,而叙利亚也爆发了动乱.

情绪化饮食

- - 译言-医疗与健康
设想你和你最好的朋友在争吵,而且是一次很愚蠢的争吵,从中你们都可以克服自己某些缺点. 但现在你情绪很低落,当你走进家门时,你妈妈会问你怎么了. 这时候你最有可能怎样去反应的呢. 告诉你妈妈发生了什么并和妈妈进行一次长时间的融洽的交流,或着告诉你妈妈,一切都还好并直走向冰箱拿一根冰激凌. 但这类似的坎坷道路是否真的有助于让你感觉更加良好,或者仅仅让你感觉到内心充满了厌恶.

情绪ABC理论

- - CSDN博客互联网推荐文章
  ABC理论是由美国心理学家埃利斯创建的. 错误信念也称为非理性信念.   如图中,A(Antecedent)指事情的前因,C(Consequence)指事情的后果,有前因必有后果,但是有同样的前因A,产生了不一样的后果C1和C2. 这是因为从前因到结果之间,一定会透过一座桥梁B(Bridge),这座桥梁就是信念和我们对情境的评价与解释.

Twitter:情绪的脉搏

- mzhair - 爱范儿 · Beats of Bits
根据《纽约时报》最近的一篇报道,康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的研究人员 Scott A. Golder 和 Michael W. Macy 对全球 84 个国家超过 200 万个 Twitter 用户所发布的 5 亿多条内容进行了基于关键字的分析,最终得出了以下结论,并编撰成报告在《科学》杂志(journal Science)上发表:.

愤怒小鸟登陆Chrome Web Store

- Wuvist - Solidot
osmsg开源资讯 写道 "wowubuntu消息,在昨天召开的Google I/O大会上,Google正式宣布热门休闲游戏Angry Birds(愤怒的小鸟)已正式进入Chrome Web Store平台,任何 Chrome 用户都可以免费下载安装(或者访问chrome.angrybirds.com),这也意味着你可以 在 Ubuntu/Linux 平台上来玩这款游戏了.