标签： apple | 发表时间：2011-09-22 06:48 | 作者：zkhappyfol Shearer
For the last thirty five years, time after time, Apple has revolutionized the way we look at technology and dragged the rest of the industry kicking and screaming into the future. If we listed all the ways in which Apple has changed the way we interact with technology, we could fill a book, so here are some of our favorite examples of how Apple has led the tech industry every step of the way.
Apple didn’t design the first consumer PC: that was the Altair 8800, a computer that was sold as a DIY kit in the back of Popular Electronics magazine in 1975. Apple’s first computer, the Apple I, tried to mimic the Altair 8800′s DIYer success, but it wasn’t until 1979′s Apple II that Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak truly revolutionized the world of home computing by releasing the world’s first consumer PC designed for amateurs instead of hobbyists and engineers: a device that resembled a home appliance and came pre-assembled and working out of the box. Less than a year later, the competition was already catching up, with Commodore releasing the popular (and Apple II-like) VIC-20 in 1980 and following it up with the Commodore 64 in 1982. To this day, the impact of the Apple II is felt… while a few holdouts still build their machines from scratch, the computer industry is dominated by consumer-oriented, prebuilt machines.苹果并没有设计出第一台个人电脑，PC史上的第一台电脑是Altair 8800，这台电脑第一次出现在1975年《流行电子》杂志的封底，那是还只是一个箱子状的供DIY的组件。苹果的第一台个人电脑是Apple Ⅰ，当时打算用来复制Altair 8800在DIY人群中的成功，但事实上，直到1979年，Apple Ⅱ的问世，才真正体现出史蒂夫·乔布斯和史蒂夫·沃兹对家用个人电脑的颠覆，因为Apple Ⅱ所面对的用户不再是那些发烧友和工程师，而是那些大量的业余爱好者。Apple Ⅱ更像是一个家庭应用（就像常用的家用电器那样），而且预置了服务，你可以在机箱外面进行操作（比起Altair 8800只能用面板上的二进制编写程序，没有其他的输入输出设备，Apple Ⅱ更接近现今的电脑，有键盘显示器，还内置了BASIC语言解释器）。在后来不到一年的时间里，苹果的竞争对手Commodore公司（和苹果同期的公司，1994年宣布破产）在1980年发布了类似Apple Ⅱ的个人电脑VIC-20，紧跟着在1982年发布了Commodore 64。从现今来看，Apple Ⅱ对个人电脑的影响可以这么说：当别人还在纠结于机器设计图纸的时候，电脑产业已经进入面向消费者、预建的时代了。
These days, we take the pretty graphical user interfaces of OS X and Windows for granted, but getting there wasn’t intuitive. The blinking cursor of operating systems like DOS is the most obvious interface for a computer, because what could be more intuitive than telling a computer what you want it to do in English?
The only problem is that computers weren’t smart enough to understand English and to work out what users wanted them to do, so computers had to have their own language and syntax to accept commands… and what had started out as an intuitive idea became a very high barrier to entry to most amateurs.
With Macintosh OS, Apple changed all of that by using visual metaphors to imagine a virtual space, with files as real objects that you can open to manipulate their contents, and a mouse pointer working like a finger tip tracing along a desktop.
Apple’s desktop model was such an amazing success that the graphical user interface has been the default way we interact with our computers and gadgets ever since. First released in 1984, Macintosh OS was followed almost immediately by the first version of Windows just a year later. Sure, any one on a Mac can still drop to a Unix shell to input commands if they want to… but even then, they have to go through OS X’s GUI first.
The shift from compartmentalized machines to all-in-ones isn’t to everyone’s liking. It makes PCs harder — if not impossible — to upgrade, and it means if one component breaks — a graphic card, or the display — the whole thing’s got to be hauled in to repair.
But there are a few big advantages to all-in-one PCs. First of all, they are easy to set up. Second, they can be designed to be more consistently attractive than traditional tower PCs. Finally, because the manufacturer has control over every component going into their PCs, well, “they just work.”
Guess which company loves to make products that just work? Yup: Apple, who revolutionized the all-in-one PC with the 1998 iMac G3.猜猜哪家公司最热爱制造持续工作的产品？没错，就是苹果。苹果在1998年发布了一体机iMac G3，是个人电脑的又一变革。
Tower PCs haven’t gone anywhere — Apple still makes one with the Mac Pro — but they’ve become increasingly niche since the iMac’s debut. While professionals and tech heads might want a machine they can build themselves and replace components easily in, most consumers just want something that is fast, looks good in their home or office and works without any problems. No wonder towers are increasingly being pushed to the sidelines.
Remember how ugly laptops used to be? Bulky plastic behemoths that did the job, sure, but looked just terrible, and were fragile to boot. Apple’s shift to using aluminum to make their laptops’ chassises not only made their notebooks sturdier, they made them sexier. Laptops became fashion accessories for the first time, and Apple began to cultivate an aura of prestige, minimalism and class. The advantages of Apple’s approach to laptop designs only continued over time as Cupertino adopted a unibody construction system that allowed them to carve a MacBook’s case out of a single block of aluminum, making them run cooler and be less likely to break than before, not to mention amp the sex appeal further. Look around at Windows notebooks today and you can see Apple’s influence: while Cupertino still leads in design and sex appeal, Apple proved to notebook makers that they could no longer ignore the aesthetics of their devices.
It’s hard to believe, but before 1999, the music industry just couldn’t figure out how to make money off of MP3s. Instead, the most popular music service out there was Napster, a file-sharing service that allowed users to indiscriminately trade songs to their hearts content.
According to the RIAA, Napster caused billions of dollars in losses… so when Apple came around and said they were going to come out with an online music store called iTunes where each track cost $0.99, the music labels were pretty happy to sign .
They’ve grumbled since about that deal, but it isn’t a stretch to say that iTunes not only saved digital music by making it mainstream enough for even your grandmother to enjoy. And while there are many complaints to be leveled at iTunes in regards to being bloated, it is still a remarkably elegant program, capable of cataloguing all of your media and getting it on to other devices, easy as a breeze.
iTunes is such a juggernaut in the digital music arena that there are few real competitors. Amazon MP3 duplicates the media buying capabilities of iTunes, but not the device syncing or the library management aspects. In fact, the only real alternatives to iTunes these days are streaming music subscription services like Spotify.
Now that Apple is preparing to roll out their iCloud service, iTunes is likely to become a less important program as time goes on, but there’s no doubt it changed —and arguably even saved — the digital music industry.
The PC industry has been playing around with the idea of pint-sized ultraportable laptops for years, but when Asus released its first Eee PC in 2007, they finally found their model: netbooks. Using low-voltage Intel Atom CPUs, netbooks had great battery life and attractive prices… but bad performance, cramped keyboards, tiny screens and cheap designs.
For years, everyone asked Apple when they’d get in on netbooks, but Steve Jobs held firm: netbooks suck. “Netbooks aren’t better than anything, they’re just cheap laptops,” he said.
In late 2010, Apple finally showed the industry how the ultaportable notebook should be done with the second-generation MacBook Air. Starting at just $999, these entry-level machines were more expensive than netbooks, but had incredible displays, fantastic battery life, full-sized keyboards, real processors and blistering fast speeds thanks to Apple’s adoption of solid state memory instead of traditional spinning hard drives.
In releasing the 2010 MacBook Air, Apple basically killed netbooks overnight. Now the competition is only talking about ultrabooks, which are just clones of the MacBook Air. Even so, the competition is finding that it just isn’t easy to undercut Apple on price, thanks to Cupertino’s manufacturing clout. It’s going to take them awhile to catch up.
Do we even need to get into this? The iPhone has changed the landscape of mobile more than any other product. Before the iPhone, smartphones were basically just PDAs with phones built in, as best exemplified by Microsoft’s Pocket PC Smartphones of the earlier part of the decade. They were made of plastic, they used styluses, they didn’t do anything well, it was hard to install software on them and they were largely inaccessible to everyone but professionals. When the iPhone was released in 2007, it did everything differently. Multitouch! Apps! A capable web browser! With the exception of a few clueless holdouts like RIM, almost every smartphone released since 2007 is basically an iPhone clone. The iPhone really did just change everything.
The way the original iPod transformed music can’t be overstated, but given Apple’s recent legal fray with Samsung over IP violations, we thought it would be fun to specifically highlight what Samsung was doing before the iPod Touch and what they’re doing now.最早的iPod改变音乐的方式是无法被夸大的，但鉴于苹果最近对三星的指控，我觉得让我们来看看三星在iPod Touch前的做法和现在的做法，一定是非常有趣的。
Samsung was one of the first players in the PMP space with their Yepp line of MP3 players. In fact, the Yepp series even precedes the original iPod, and the hardware of the 64MB Yepp YP-40 was actually released in the United States as the original Creative Nomad.三星是最早一批驻足于便携媒体播放设备（PMP，Portable Media Player）的厂商，当时的产品是Yepp MP3播放器。事实上，Yepp系列产品甚至领先于最早的iPod，64M的Yepp YP-40在美国发布，就像早期的创新Nomad。
You can still buy Yepp players today, but every successive generation since Apple released the original iPod, they’ve become more iPod like, and the Yepp line has its own versions of the Shuffle and Nano. But look no further for utter shamelessness than Samsung’s response to the iPod Touch, the Galaxy Player, which looks identical to the Touch right down to the design of its icons.
Apple was late entering the tablet game. Microsoft had a special version of its Windows operating system suited for tablet PCs since 2001, but before the iPad, tablets were a very different beast. For one thing, they were really nothing but convertible laptops with LCDs that could be flipped around and drawn on using a stylus. As such, tablets were mostly aimed at niche artist professionals. And since they were really just transforming laptops, they were bulky, heavy, didn’t have great touch integration and boasted terrible battery life.
The iPad changed everything. By realigning the tablet form factor towards media consumption — reading, watching videos, playing games and checking the web — Apple created the first tablet with mass market appeal. At the same time, tablets stopped being hybrid machines and instead became their own true product category, sitting firmly in between a smartphone and a laptop in users’ gadget arsenals.
You only need to see the string of tablets that have followed in the iPad’s wake to see the effect of Apple’s tablet. Instead of Windows, they run mobile operating systems like webOS or Android. Instead of x86 cores, they boast ARM architecture. And nowhere is there a keyboard, an optical drive or a stylus to be seen.你只要看看iPad发布后对于平板电脑的那些评论，就知道苹果的平板电脑有多大的影响力了。iPad放弃了Windows操作系统，而改用移动操作系统，如webOS或Android。内核方面，放弃了x86，使用了ARM构架。而且在iPad身上，你看不到键盘，看不到光驱，连手写笔也看不到。
Apple’s so-called “hobby” device, the Apple TV, hasn’t really made the same sort of impact that many of their other category evolutions have. Still, it influenced the direction of the industry. Before the Apple TV came out, most people’s set-top boxes were digital video recorders like TiVO. These allowed people to record and subscribe to shows that were playing on the air, but you were at the mercy of what networks were broadcasting.
When Apple released their set-top box in 2007, the expectation changed from “recording what had already been broadcast” to “downloading movies and shows on-demand.”
The original Apple TV basically worked as a giant iPod that was hooked up to your TV and could sync content purchased through iTunes, but with the Apple TV 2, Cupertino once again shifted their set-top box’s priorities from downloading to streaming. In doing so, Apple followed the lead of companies like Roku who had fully embraced a strategy of allowing consumers to turn their televisions into connected smart TVs by picking up a diminutive and affordable set-top box, but even so, Apple had a new wrinkle up their sleeve: the Apple TV would now also function as a portal through which mobile devices like the iPhone and iPad can wirelessly connect to a user’s television. How long do you suppose it’ll be until we see the competition trying to mirror that killer feature?
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For the last thirty five years, time after time, Apple has revolutionized the way we look at technology and dragged the rest of the industry kicking and screaming into the future.
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Apple 宣布旗下的无损音频压缩格式 ALAC 开源. Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC) 是一款由 Apple 开发的无损音乐压缩格式，被广泛的应用在 iOS 系列设备及 OS X 系统上. 本次将该格式及对应的编解码器按照 GPL 兼容的 APL2.0 的协议开源.
在昨天 Apple 闹出 iOS 8.0.1 的”乌龙”事件之后，今天 Apple 上线了 iOS 8.0.2 的更新，修正了 iOS 8.0.1 导致的 Touch ID 和 蜂窝数据网络不能在 iPhone 6 机型上工作的问题，同时还修复了其他一系列 Bug. 修正了 iOS 8.0.1 在 iPhone 6 和 iPhone 6 Plus 上蜂窝数据和 Touch ID 不工作的问题；.
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